Although regulating short-range range in a process essentially analogous to the arrival movement is extremely challenging, managing satel- stage of biological invasions. If these colonies lite populations that arise outside of the established successfully establish, then they could grow and range through long-range dispersal can be a more eventually coalesce with the established range of the feasible goal with important consequences in limiting organism, resulting in a more rapid overall rate of overall range expansion Liebhold and Tobin For example, detection of newly-established satellite colonies, and migratory birds are believed to facilitate the long- site-specific control tactics to effectively eradicate the distance dispersal of hemlock woolly adelgid, colonies prior to their increase in abundance and Fig.
Tobin distribution. Once the organism is abundant and life stages Sharov and Liebhold b; Tobin and distributed over a broader range, eradication mea- Blackburn ; Hajek and Tobin Under STS, sures have decreased chances of success.
In this pheromone-baited traps are deployed along the sense, containment strategies rely on the principles of population front to detect newly-established colonies, eradication although complete extirpation of the which can then be targeted for eradication to limit invasive species is not the goal. Because most newly-established lematic in human population centers where the colonies are detected at low densities, the primary economic impacts tend to be considerable due to management tactic in STS is mating disruption the high costs associated with conducting programs in Thorpe et al.
This is especially true for trap. However, mating disruption is not effective at those invasive arthropods that cause damage to urban higher densities, and to manage these higher density forests where the hazards of tree mortality pose a populations, both Btk Reardon et al. Several factors are extend to human health. In both cases, site-specific considered when determining the appropriate dose and host-specific control tactics are often desired, and and number of Btk applications, but the primary microbial pesticides generally provide the degree of factors to consider are the presence of egg masses target host specificity that limits environmental which represents a reproducing population since contamination and non-target mortality.
This is front at variable rates Johnson et al. In addition to short-range dispersal, area contribute proportionally more to the rate of new satellite colonies arise through various mecha- spread under stratified dispersal than those that are nisms, including human and atmospheric transport of closer. Because LdMNPV already occurs mies have been used to control invasive arthropods in in North America and is extremely host specific, it can a manner that is more environmentally safe than safely be used in environmentally-sensitive habitats synthetic chemical pesticides.
Two major strategies when there is concern for the non-target effects of have been used against invasive arthropods: classical broader-spectrum pesticides, including Btk which can biological control and inundative augmentation.
Many species of insect predators and parasitoids have been released for classical biological control of invasive species Suppression of established invasive arthropod Hoddle , including against the gypsy moth populations using pathogens and parasitic during the early twentieth century Burgess Some invasive arthro- pods impact production agriculture and are managed Classical biological control using standard practices that incorporate the concept of economic injury thresholds Pedigo et al.
This type of intensive management could is the long-term effect, often with no further control be thought of as localized eradication efforts, e. However, many of the species that lishment. However, for natural enemies with limited are included when using the term invasive are pests methods for self dispersal, classical biological control of native ecosystems or less managed systems such as programs can require mass production of the natural planted forests or urban forests. For pests in these enemy so that it can be further distributed throughout systems, the management goal is generally to main- the affected area.
Over the past few decades, this tain the pest population at the lowest feasible level same permanence has lead to criticism based on and to preserve, or in some cases, re-establish the natural enemies released in the past that were not native ecosystem. In these instances, to attempt to adequately host-specific but had become permanently achieve high levels of pest mortality is simply not established Henneman and Memmot ; Simberloff possible without considerable disruption to native and Stiling ; Strong and Pemberton ; Louda ecosystems or plantings near human habitation.
The et al. As of , it appeared that numbers of extent to which the invasive population can be classical biological control introductions of patho- suppressed is based on available methods for detec- gens and parasitic nematodes against arthropods tion and control, impact of the invasive species, had decreased from highs between and efficacy of the control agent, and available funding Hajek et al. Tobin Table 3 Examples of successful uses of pathogens and nematodes for classical biological control and augmentation against invasive arthropods Type of application Agent Host Location Citations Classical biological control Virus: Neodiprion Neodiprion sertifer Canada, United Hajek et al.
United States Tobin and Blackburn Containment and thuringiensis var. However, A recent summary of classical biological some examples of successful programs are presented control introductions of pathogens and nematodes for in Table 3. Here, we will describe an example of a control of arthropods worldwide found that The majority of introduced pathogens and nematodes became established, regardless of whether The fungal pathogen, Entomophaga maimaiga, the host was native In Although this possibility might sound outland- —, the pathogen E.
Update Location. Use of microbes for control and eradication of invasive arthropods pdf. Biological control of the cassava green mite in Africa with Brazilian isolates of the fungal pathogen Neozygites tanajoae. Chapters in this book cover entomopathogens that have been developedforcontrolofinvasivespeciesovermanydecades e. Published six times a year, British Wildlife bridges the gap between popular writing and scientific literature through a combination of long-form articles, regular columns and reports, book reviews and letters.
Tokyo, was introduced to areas adjacent to Boston, By , a monograph reported that An important aspect of any agent used for classical establishment of this entomopathogen had not been biological control is its specificity Henneman and successful Speare and Colley Once again, establishment was not species in the Family Lymantriidae. However, other considered successful based on field studies at release lymantriids were not commonly infected in the field, sites in and — Hajek et al.
North America when, in , during a very wet spring E. By , the fungus had spread across the contiguous distribution of A diversity of microbes introduced against several gypsy moth in the northeastern US Hajek For example, as E. In contrast, European spruce sawfly, Gilpinia hercyniae Hartig , E. This virus, thought to have been acciden- Atlantic area but it has not controlled gypsy moth tally introduced with parasitoids, became a key factor populations during recent outbreaks — and regulating populations of this defoliator Cunningham — in this region Gypsy Moth Digest It was subsequently introduced to Newfoundland The cause of the spatial variability in the activity of and used against an isolated infestation in Ontario as E.
Viruses have also been successfully A major question has been the source of the introduced against the invasive rhinoceros beetle E. Molecular studies suggest that the against the invasive spotted alfalfa aphid in Australia E. In agreement, models of Southern Hemisphere and Scapteriscus mole crickets E.
These introduced weather during different years suggest that microbes have always been very host specific, they E. Appropriate some time after Weseloh Tobin against A. Since , ranges of these beetles. Many Augmentation biological control states maintain cooperative suppression programs in collaboration with local governments, private resi- Augmentation biological control takes two forms: dents, and the USDA, to mitigate gypsy moth application with effects only due to the actual outbreaks, and both Btk and LdMNPV are used in microbes applied i.
Inundative augmentation is generally the strat- egy used for applying microbes for suppression, Gypsy moth is established throughout 12 states and in although it is understood that the pathogen probably portions of 6 additional states in the northeastern, replicates in the host to some extent, yielding further midwestern, and mid-Atlantic US Tobin et al. For inundative control with pathogens, in The principal material used to suppress established general the amount of the microbe applied is the gypsy moth populations in the United States is Btk amount of inoculum estimated as being present in the and, to a lesser extent, LdMNPV Fig.
Since its environment during an epizootic. During the for pest control e.
This attributes determining which microbes are developed material is so extensively used because Btk can be as biopesticides. Species that have been developed as extremely effective at preventing outbreaks. As with many invasive arthropods, including the LdMNPV is well known for its ability to cause gypsy moth, most negative impacts are often associ- epizootics in high density gypsy moth populations, ated with outbreak populations Leuschner et al.
Therefore, a common gypsy moth populations Elkinton and Liebhold approach to mitigate outbreaking populations is their ; Solter and Hajek This virus is consid- direct suppression, preferably prior to their reaching ered a valuable option for suppression because it is outbreaking densities. During gypsy moth outbreaks, not known to infect any other species. Its safety and for example, larvae can severely defoliate trees and ability to suppress gypsy moth populations have cause heavy tree mortality, especially to diseased, resulted in 40 years of product development.
For suppression, large numbers of caterpillars, quantities of their frass, two applications of 4. For gypsy moth suppression programs, the most Because some Bt endotoxins are active against important safety issue due to Btk applications is the beetles, appropriate strains of this bacterium have potential for effects on non-target Lepidoptera. Non- been explored for use against A. However, the use of Chen et al.
State and Federal suppression programs can that takes advantage of contamination of adults with only use treatment options specified in the Final infective spores during their normal periods of Environmental Impact Statement to manage gypsy wandering on trunks and branches Hajek and Bauer moth, and these include Btk, LdMNPV, diflubenzu- Hypocrealean fungi are grown in non-woven ron, mass trapping, mating disruption, and sterile fiber bands that are placed around tree branches. This insect release Tobin and Blackburn More- application methodology is planned for use with an over, New Jersey, for example, has a state ban against attractant but, at this time, requires an industrial the use of diflubenzuron due to its non-target effects partner.
Several species of entomopathogenic nema- New Jersey Administrative Code Title 7, Chapter 30, todes have been shown to be effective at killing Subchapter 2. Alternatively, a do-nothing strategy A. For A. Efforts must now include formulation, droplet Some of the more recently introduced, high profile size, and droplet density analyses that, if successful, arthropod pests in North America include A. Efforts are still being A.
Entomopathogenic fungi made to eradicate local populations, and in these have also been investigated for control of emerald ash efforts, only agents that act very quickly would be borer adults and larvae by spraying trunks and foliage appropriate for eradication. Various species of patho- at different times of the season with Beauveria gens are currently under investigation against both of bassiana GHA Liu and Bauer a, b. This these wood borers to determine their feasibility in mycoinsecticide is already mass-produced in North eradication and in providing environmentally sensi- America so availability would not be a major tive control strategies if eradication is not successful.
Methods have also been developed for Because both of these pests live within the tree during evaluating persistence of this fungus on tree trunks their immature stages, very different obstacles are and in soil at bases of trees after application in the being encountered toward development of microbes field Castrillo et al. Tobin Discussion has been the focus of research efforts for over years, we thus have a robust knowledge base on Increasing numbers of invasive arthropods are being gypsy moth biology, ecology, and management using introduced and are becoming established worldwide.
This wealth of knowledge potentially Eradication and management can be difficult but we provides a valuable template for determining if and are learning that specific tactics can work in some how entomopathogens could be applied feasibly cases Simberloff Historically, chemical insec- against other invasive arthropod species. Some recent ticides were the mainstay of arthropod eradication high profile invasive arthropods include wood boring efforts, from arsenic-based compounds such as Paris beetles, in part due to the use of solid wood green to DDT to carbaryl.
This book offers a diverse presentation about use of arthropod-specific pathogens for control and eradication of invasive arthropod species. Basic concepts. This book is part of the 'Progress in Biological Control Series' published by Springer. Each book in the series provides an in-depth review of.
However, many invading packaging materials in which immatures can be arthropods frequently need to be eradicated or surreptitiously transported though global trade. Uses managed in natural ecosystems or areas of human of microbes against gypsy moth, with caterpillars habitation where concerns over human health and living and feeding externally on leaves, are not environmental safety are paramount and use of directly applicable to A. Therefore, new tion, and arthropod pathogens and parasitic nema- approaches are being investigated toward the use of todes have been used for containment and suppression pathogens and nematodes for management of inva- of several invasive arthropod species.
Pathogens that sive wood-borers. Aside from safety issues, the guidelines, and the use of host-specific pathogens pathogens and nematodes that are used depend on the could be considered as one approach to investigate biological attributes of the pathogen or nematode, among several in these efforts. Blackburn for assistance with figures, M.
Grambor for assistance with the manuscript and tative biological control and availability of the T. Ebata for assistance with providing information. Thought- pathogen or nematode. In addition, gypsy moth References containment uses Btk as an important agent, in addition to mating disruption, to eliminate isolated Allwood AJ, Vueti ET, Leblanc L, Bull R Eradication of introduced Bactrocera species Diptera: Tephritidae in colonies that form ahead of the moving population Nauru using male annihilation and protein bait application front.
In areas of the northeastern, eastern and techniques. Landsc Ecol — which can also be regulated by E. Of course, eradication and containment of programme: North Africa — Food and Agri- gypsy moth is primarily possible due to the effec- culture of the United Nations Aronson AI, Beckman W, Dunn P Bacillus thuringi- tiveness of a monitoring tool, pheromone-baited ensis and related insect pathogens. Microbiol Rev —24 traps, in detecting newly-established and low density Barinaga M Entomologists in the Medfly maelstrom. Science — We generally have very limited information about Bedding RA Controlling the pine-killing woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, with nematodes.
Springer, Dordrecht, — extremely challenging. Biol Control — sel invasion of inland lakes. Bull Entomol Soc Am — Interception frequency of exotic bark and ambrosia bee- Delalibera I Jr Biological control of the cassava green tles Coleoptera: Scolytinae and relationship with estab- mite in Africa with Brazilian isolates of the fungal pathogen lishment in New Zealand and worldwide. Can J For Res Neozygites tanajoae.