For instance, automobiles allowed effective resource allocation and mobility, whilst the telecommunication system increased the speed of communication. Furthermore, the job specification which later became the basis of developing the Work Breakdown Structure WBS was widely used and Henry Gantt invented the Gantt chart. Examples of projects undertaken during this period as supported by documented evidence include: a Building the Pacific Railroad in s; b Construction of the Hoover Dam in , that employed approximately 5, workers and is still one of the highest gravity dams in the U.
Significant technology advancement took place between and , such as, the first automatic plain-paper copier by Xerox in However, this period was characterised by the rapid development of computer technology. The progression from the mainframe to the mini-computer in the s made computers affordable to medium size companies. Furthermore, the evolution of computer technology facilitated the emergence of several project management software companies, including, Artemis , Oracle , and Scitor Corporation Examples of projects undertaken during this period and which influenced the development of modem project management as we know it today include: a Polaris missile project initiated in that had the objective of delivering nuclear missiles carried by submarines, known as Fleet Ballistic Missile for the U.
The project successfully launched its first Polaris missile in ; b Apollo project initiated in with the objective of sending man to the moon; and c E. I du Pont de Nemours chemical plant project commencing in , that had the objective of building major chemical production plants across the U. The s and s are characterised by the revolutionary development in the information management sector with the introduction of the personal computer PC and associated computer communications networking facilities.
This development resulted in having low cost multitasking PCs that had high efficiency in managing and controlling complex project schedules. During this period low cost project management software for PCs became widely available that made project management techniques more easily accessible. Examples of major projects undertaken during this period that illustrate the application of high technology, and project management tools and practices include: a England France Channel project, to This project was an international project that involved two governments, several financial institutions, engineering construction companies, and other various organisations from the two countries.
The language, use of standard metrics, and other communication differences needed to be closely coordinated; b Space Shuttle Challenger project, to The disaster of the Challenger space shuttle focused attention on risk management, group dynamics, and quality management; and c xv Calgary Winter Olympic of , which successfully applied project management practices to event management.
This period is dominated by the developments related to the Internet that changed dramatically business practices in the mid s. The Internet has provided fast, interactive, and customised new medium that allows people to browse, purchase, and track products and services online instantly.
This has resulted in making firms more productive, more efficient, and more client oriented. Furthermore, many of today's project management software have an Internet connectivity feature. This allows automatic uploading of data so that anyone around the globe with a standard browser can: a input the most recent status of their assigned tasks; b find out how the overall project is doing; c be informed of any delays or advances in the schedule; and d stay "in the loop" for their project role, while working independently at a remote site.
An example of a major project undertaken during this period is the Year Y2K project.
Storage Resources. Unlike the Navy Polaris project, these construction undertakings required accurate time and cost estimates. Available at SSRN Multi-objective optimization model for mul-ti-project scheduling on critical chain. Nutcache has a new look and feel. This could not be done without leveraging the collaborative power of the whole team. Discrete Applied Mathematics, 1 ,
The Y2K Project, known as the millennium bug referred to the problem that computers may not function correctly on January lst, at 12 AM. This was a global phenomenon and was highly problematic because resolving the problem at one's organisation did not guarantee immunity, since a breakdown in the organisation's supply chain could affect the organisation's operating capability. Many organisations set up a project office to control and comply with their stakeholders regarding the Y2K issue.
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Furthermore, use of the Internet was common practice that led to the establishment of the virtual project office. The goal of this virtual project office was: a to deliver uninterrupted turn-of-the-century; b monitor Y2K project efforts; c provide coordination; d develop a risk management plan; and e communicate Y2K compliance efforts with various stakeholders.
Thus, the virtual project office was a focal point for all the project works, and it increased the awareness and importance of risk management practices to numerous organisations. There is no doubt that organisations today face more aggressive competition than in the past and the business environment they operate in is a highly turbulent one.
This scenario has increased the need for organisational accountability for the private and public sectors, leading to a greater focus and demand for operational effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness and efficiency may be facilitated through the introduction of best practices that are able to optimise the management of organisational resources. It has been shown that operations and projects are dissimilar with each requiring different management techniques. Hence, in a project environment, project management can: a support the achievement of project and organisational goals; and b provide a greater assurance to stakeholders that resources are being managed effectively.
If the Specialization includes a separate course for the hands-on project, you'll need to finish each of the other courses before you can start it. When you finish every course and complete the hands-on project, you'll earn a Certificate that you can share with prospective employers and your professional network. Industry experts join Columbia University professor, Ibrahim Odeh, to give an overview of the construction industry.
Technological advances, such as Building Information Modeling, will be introduced with real world examples of the uses of BIM during the Lifecycle of the Project.
The course concludes with Professor Odeh discussing the importance of project planning and scheduling and an opportunity to develop a Work Breakdown Structure. Learners will discover the key project scheduling techniques and procedures including; how to create a network diagram, how to define the importance of the critical path in a project network, and defining project activities float.
This course introduces the types of cost estimation from the conceptual design phase through the more detailed design phase of a construction project. In addition, the course highlights the importance of controlling costs and how to monitor project cash flow. Students will work on a break-even analysis of construction tasks in a project. The final course of the specialization expands the knowledge of a construction project manager to include an understanding of economics and the mathematics of money, an essential component of every construction project.
Topics covered include the time value of money, the definition and calculation of the types of interest rates, and the importance of Cash Flow Diagrams. To get started, click the course card that interests you and enroll.
You can enroll and complete the course to earn a shareable certificate, or you can audit it to view the course materials for free. Visit your learner dashboard to track your progress. You can access your lectures, readings and assignments anytime and anywhere via the web or your mobile device.
Understand the foundations of project planning and perform more advanced scheduling calculations.
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Demeulemeester, E. Hartmann, S. Lootsma, F.